Friday, February 7, 2020
Ethics Case Study - Essay Example In general, the LPN has less training and less education requirements than the RN. In any office, it is the RN who is able to sign prescriptions and administer medication to patients. The LPN is under the supervision of an RN and therefore cannot dispense medication or prescriptions without the okay from the RN. In this situation, Jerry McCall does not know this patient and therefore does not know the dosage that the doctor has given him in the past. Also, the patient could be lying so McCall should look at the individuals chart before doing anything. What Jerry should do in this situation is tell the patient that he will talk to the doctor about it and see what he can do. He cannot take the word of the patient that the doctor has given him Valium in the past. Jerry can tell the patient that the doctor is currently out, but he will page him and ask him about the prescription. It does not matter whether the patient needs medication for high blood pressure because the point is that the LPN must always have a doctor or an RN sign off on their work. If Jerry were to call in the refill and something happens to the patient, he is not protected from a lawsuit because he went beyond his scope of practice if he calls in the medication. The doctor that he works for would be in the most trouble under the doctrine of respondent superior. In terms of ethical and legal issues, Jerry must first think about the oath of "do no harm." If he were to prescribe the Valium, and something should happen to the patient or the medication should have an adverse affect, his boss would be the most liable in the situation. However, Jerry has acted under his own will if he gives the medication and legally, he was not able to dispense this medication on his own, which means he could lose his license to practice. Depending on the state that the individual is practicing in, they may have more legal responsibilities in this case. Ethically, Jerry is bound by whatever training he had and the
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Strategy Formulation Essay Basic strategic planning is comprised of several components that build upon the previous piece of the plan, and operates much like a flow chart. However, prior to embarking on this process, it is important to consider the players involved. There must be a commitment from the highest office in the organizational hierarchy. Without buy-in from the head of a company, it is unlikely that other members will be supportive in the planning and eventual implementation process, thereby dooming the plan before it ever takes shape. Commitment and support of the strategic-planning initiative must spread from the president and/or CEO all the way down through the ranks to the line worker on the factory floor. Just as importantly, the strategic-planning team should be composed of top-level managers who are capable of representing the interests, concerns, and opinions of all members of the organization. As well, organizational theory dictates that there should be no more than twelve members of the team. This allows group dynamics to function at their optimal level. The components of the strategic-planning process read much like a laundry list, with one exception: each piece of the process must be kept in its sequential order since each part builds upon the previous one. This is where the similarity to a flow chart is most evident, as can be seen in the following illustration. The only exceptions to this are environmental scanning and continuous implementation, which are continuous processes throughout. This article will now focus on the discussion of each component of the formulation process: environmental scanning, continuous implementation, values assessment, vision and mission formulation, strategy design, performance audit analysis, gap analysis, action-plan development, contingency planning, and final implementation. After that, this article will discuss a Japanese variation to Strategy Formulation, Hoshin Planning, which has become very popular. ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING This element of strategy formulation is one of the two continuous processes. Consistently scanning its surroundings serves the distinct purpose of allowing a company to survey a variety of constituents that affect its performance, and which are necessary in order to conduct subsequent pieces of the planning process. There are several specific areas that should be considered, including the overall environment, the specific industry itself, competition, and the internal environment of the firm. The resulting consequence of regular inspection of the environment is that an organization readily notes changes and is able to adapt its strategy accordingly. This leads to the development of a real advantage in the form of accurate responses to internal Figure 1 Strategic Planning Process Ã and external stimuli so as to keep pace with the competition. CONTINUOUS IMPLEMENTATION The idea behind this continual process is that each step of the planning process requires some degree of implementation before the next stage can begin. This naturally dictates that all implementation cannot be postponed until completion of the plan, but must be initiated along the way. Implementation procedures specific to each phase of planning must be completed during that phase in order for the next stage to be started. VALUES ASSESSMENT All business decisions are fundamentally based on some set of values, whether they are personal or organizational values. The implication here is that since the strategic plan is to be used as a guide for daily decision making, the plan itself should be aligned with those personal and organizational values. To delve even further, a values assessment should include an in-depth analysis of several elements: personal values, organizational values, operating philosophy, organization culture, and stakeholders. This allows the planning team to take a macro look at the organization and how it functions as a whole. Strategic planning that does not integrate a values assessment into the process is sure to encounter severe implementation and functionality problems if not outright failure. Briefly put, form follows function; the form of the strategic plan must follow the functionality of the organization, which is a direct result of organizational values and culture. If any party feels that his or her values have been neglected, he or she will not adopt the plan into daily work procedures and the benefits will not be obtained. VISION AND MISSION FORMULATION This step of the planning process is critical in that is serves as the foundation upon which the remainder of the plan is built. A vision is a statement that identifies where an organization wants to be at some point in the future. It functions to provide a company with directionality, stress management, justification and quantification of resources, enhancement of professional growth, motivation, standards, and succession planning. Porrus and Collins (1996) point out that a well-conceived vision consists of two major components: a core ideology and the envisioned future. A core ideology is the enduring character of an organization; it provides the glue that holds an organization together. It itself is composed of core values and a core purpose. The core purpose is the organizations entire reason for being. The envisioned future involves a conception of the organization at a specified future date inclusive of its aspirations and ambitions. It includes the BHAG (big, hairy, audacious goal), which a company typically reaches only 50 to 70 percent of the time. This envisioned future gives vividly describes specific goals for the organization to reach. The strategic results of a well formulated vision include the survival of the organization, the focus on productive effort, vitality through the alignment of the individual employees and the organization as a whole, and, finally, success. Once an agreed-upon vision is implemented, it is time to move on to the creation of a mission statement. An explicit mission statement ensures the unanimity of purpose, provides the basis for resource allocation, guides organizational climate and culture, establishes organizational boundaries, facilitates accountability, and facilitates control of cost, time, and performance. When formulating a mission statement, it is vital that it specifies six specific elements, including the basic product or service, employee orientation, primary market(s), customer orientation, principle technologies, and standards of quality. With all of these elements incorporated, a mission statement should still remain short and memorable. For example, the mission statement of the American Red Cross, reads: The mission of the American Red Cross is to improve the quality of human life; to enhance self-reliance and concern for others; and to help people avoid, prepare for, and cope with emergencies. Other functions of a mission statement include setting the bounds for development of company philosophy, values, aspirations, and priorities (policy); establishing a positive public image; justifying business operations; and providing a corporate identity for internal and external stakeholders. STRATEGY DESIGN This section of strategy formulation involves the preliminary layout of the detailed paths by which the company plans to fulfill its mission and vision. This step involves four major elements: identification of the major lines of business (LOBs), establishment of critical success indicators (CSIs), identification of strategic thrusts to pursue, and the determination of the necessary culture. A line of business is an activity that produces either dramatically different products or services or that are geared towards very different markets. When considering the addition of a new line of business, it should be based on existing core competencies of the organization, its potential contribution to the bottom line, and its fit with the firms value system. The establishment of critical success factors must be completed for the organization as a whole as well as for each line of business. A critical success indicator is a gauge by which to measure the progress toward achieving the companys m ission. In order to serve as a motivational tool, critical success indicators must be accompanied by a target year (i.e. 1999, 1999Ã¢â¬â2002, etc.). This also allows for easy tracking of the indicated targets. These indicators are typically a mixture of financial figures and ratios (i.e. return on investment, return on equity, profit margins, etc.) and softer indicators such as customer loyalty, employee retention/turnover, and so on. Strategic thrusts are the most well-known methods for accomplishing the mission of an organization. Generally speaking, there are a handful of commonly used strategic thrusts, which have been so aptly named grand strategies. They include the concentration on existing products or services; market/product development; concentration on innovation/technology; vertical/horizontal integration; the development of joint ventures; diversification; retrenchment/turnaround (usually through cost reduction); and divestment/liquidation (known as the final solution). Finally, in designing strategy, it is necessary to determine the necessary culture with which to support the achievement of the lines of business, cr itical success indicators, and strategic thrusts. Harrison and Stokes (1992) defined four major types of organizational cultures: power orientation, role orientation, achievement orientation, and support orientation. Power orientation is based on the inequality of access to resources, and leadership is based on strength from those individuals who control the organization from the top. Role orientation carefully defines the roles and duties of each member of the organization; it is a bureaucracy. The achievement orientation aligns people with a common vision or purpose. It uses the mission to attract and release the personal energy of organizational members in the pursuit of common goals. With a support orientation, the organizational climate is based on mutual trust between the individual and the organization. More emphasis is placed on people being valued more as human beings rather than employees. Typically an organization will choose some mixture of these or other predefined culture roles that it feels is suitable in helping it to achieve is mission and the other components of strategy design. PERFORMANCE AUDIT ANALYSIS Conducting a performance audit allows the organization to take inventory of what its current state is. The main idea of this stage of planning is to take an in-depth look at the companys internal strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats. This is commonly called a SWOT analysis. Developing a clear understanding of resource strengths and weaknesses, an organizations best opportunities, and its external threats allows the planning team to draw conclusions about how to best allocate resources in light of the firms internal and external situation. This also produces strategic thinking about how to best strengthen the organizations resource base for the future. Looking internally, there are several key areas that must be analyzed and addressed. This includes identifying the status of each existing line of business and unused resources for prospective additions; identifying the status of current tracking systems; defining the organizations strategic profile; listing the available resources for implementing the strategic thrusts that have been selected for achieving the newly defined mission; and an examining the current organizational culture. The external investigation should look closely at competitors, suppliers, markets and customers, economic trends, labor-market conditions, and governmental regulations. In conducting this query, the information gained and used must reflect a current state of affairs as well as directions for the future. The result of a performance audit should be the establishment of a performance gap, that is, the resultant gap between the current performance of the organization in relation to its performance targets. To close this gap, the planning team must conduct what is known as a gap analysis, the next step in the strategic planning process. GAP ANALYSIS A gap analysis is a simple tool by which the planning team can identify methods with which to close the identified performance gap(s). All too often, however, planning teams make the mistake of making this step much more difficult than need be. Simply, the planning team must look at the current state of affairs and the desired future state. The first question that must be addressed is whether or not the gap can feasibly be closed. If so, there are two simple questions to answer: What are we doing now that we need to stop doing? and What do we need to do that we are not doing? In answering these questions and reallocating resources from activities to be ceased to activities to be started, the performance gap is closed. If there is doubt that the initial gap cannot be closed, then the feasibility of the desired future state must be reassessed. Collins, James C., and Jerry I. Porras. Building Your Companys Vision. Harvard Business Review, September-October 1996, 65Ã¢â¬â90. Goldstein, Leonard D., Timothy M. Nolan, and J. William Pfeiffer. Applied Strategic Planning: How to Develop a Plan that Really Works. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1993. Harrison, Roger, and Herb Stokes. Diagnosing Organizational Culture. San Francisco: Pfeiffer, 1992. King, Bob. Hoshin Planning: the Developmental Approach. Methuen, MA: GOAL/QPC, 1989. Mellum, Mara Minerva, and Casey Collett. Breakthrough Leadership: Achieving Organizational Alignment through Hoshin Planning. Chicago: American Hospital Publishers, Inc., 1995.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
How Has It Developed? Only within the last two decades have HIV and AIDS become largely visible in the United States and across the globe. It may appear that there is virtually a void in legislation dealing with HIV and AIDS because of the relatively recent increase in public awareness. Perhaps, though, this lack of legislation should not be surprising considering the fact that almost no other specific illnesses are the target of direct legislation. The rights of patients are often the topic of new laws; however, exact diseases or disorders are not usually expounded upon in these broader forms of legislation. The situation involving the possible transmission of HIV to Kimberly Bergalis from her dentist provoked many calls for specific legislation requiring medical professionals to be tested for HIV. Additionally, some suggest that if a health care provider tests HIV positive that he or she should be required to disclose this information to all involved patients. Since there is no preexisting legislation on mandated HIV testing for health care professionals, one must apply broader, more ambiguous interpretations of the Constitution in order to mount cases both for and against the implementation of required HIV testing [Notre Dame J. of Law]. The Amendments of the Constitution that are most applicable to the debate over required HIV testing are the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, which contain elements of the right to equal protection, and the fourth amendment, which contains elements of the right to privacy. The Fifth Amendment involves the role of the federal government, as opposed to th e Fourteenth Amendment which addresses the role of state governments [Notre Dame J. of Law]. An excerpt from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution is given below: "Ã¢â¬ ¦No state shallÃ¢â¬ ¦deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." (The Constitution of the United States of America can be viewed in its entirety at http://www.publicadministration.net/resources/the-united-states-constitution/ ) The Fourteenth Amendment states rather clearly that citizens have the right to equal protection, but the Fifth Amendment does not express this right in such an explicit manner. However, Supreme Court rulings have cited the Fifth Amendment as a source of the right to equal protection through due process in various cases [Notre Dame J. of Law]. An American citizen's fundamental right to privacy is supplied by the Fourth Amendment. This amendment, as stated below, is traditionally known as the Search and Seizure Amendment. "The right of HIV and AIDS: How Has It Developed? :: HIV AIDS Diseases Health Essays How Has It Developed? Only within the last two decades have HIV and AIDS become largely visible in the United States and across the globe. It may appear that there is virtually a void in legislation dealing with HIV and AIDS because of the relatively recent increase in public awareness. Perhaps, though, this lack of legislation should not be surprising considering the fact that almost no other specific illnesses are the target of direct legislation. The rights of patients are often the topic of new laws; however, exact diseases or disorders are not usually expounded upon in these broader forms of legislation. The situation involving the possible transmission of HIV to Kimberly Bergalis from her dentist provoked many calls for specific legislation requiring medical professionals to be tested for HIV. Additionally, some suggest that if a health care provider tests HIV positive that he or she should be required to disclose this information to all involved patients. Since there is no preexisting legislation on mandated HIV testing for health care professionals, one must apply broader, more ambiguous interpretations of the Constitution in order to mount cases both for and against the implementation of required HIV testing [Notre Dame J. of Law]. The Amendments of the Constitution that are most applicable to the debate over required HIV testing are the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, which contain elements of the right to equal protection, and the fourth amendment, which contains elements of the right to privacy. The Fifth Amendment involves the role of the federal government, as opposed to th e Fourteenth Amendment which addresses the role of state governments [Notre Dame J. of Law]. An excerpt from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution is given below: "Ã¢â¬ ¦No state shallÃ¢â¬ ¦deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." (The Constitution of the United States of America can be viewed in its entirety at http://www.publicadministration.net/resources/the-united-states-constitution/ ) The Fourteenth Amendment states rather clearly that citizens have the right to equal protection, but the Fifth Amendment does not express this right in such an explicit manner. However, Supreme Court rulings have cited the Fifth Amendment as a source of the right to equal protection through due process in various cases [Notre Dame J. of Law]. An American citizen's fundamental right to privacy is supplied by the Fourth Amendment. This amendment, as stated below, is traditionally known as the Search and Seizure Amendment. "The right of
Monday, January 13, 2020
1. Write a 450- to 700-word essay to describe the relationship between classical and operant conditioning. Explain their elements and how they differ from one another. Additionally, provide an example for how learning can occur through each mode of conditioning. Explain how Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner contributed to the study of learning and conditioning. Ivan Pavlov contributions were the start and the rise of behaviorism in psychology. His experimental methods influence the growth of behaviorism, and helped move psychology away from introspection and subjective or the objective measurement of behavior in which played a great part in our study. Hey study the behavior of Dogs in which in term he develops a new form of learning .This new form of learning is called classical conditioning a form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli. Ivan Pavlov also used a bell in which as a neutral stimulus, he would ring the bell when the dogs were given an unconditioned stimulus, meat powder. The result is that the dogs than will respond salivate when the unconditioned stimulus is given to the dogs. This stimulus is called the conditioned stimulus; it changes from an unconditioned response to a conditioned respond. The dog quickly learned the difference from the bell and receiving an unconditioned stimulus. As for B.F skinner who also staunch behaviorism became a force in psychology and the therapy techniques in fact that we still used extensively today. He also made the Skinner box which is also called operant conditioning chamber in which had like a metal lever and a tray in which food can be drop for the rats are in a tray.These two played an important role in our psychologyÃ¢â¬â¢s history gave us an important contributions to our understanding of human behavior in which we can use to go by. 2. Match the correct type of memory with its respective function.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"It has been estimated that of the 2 million Americans who die each year, 80% die in hospitals or nursing homes, and 70% of those die after a decision to forgo life-sustaining treatment has been madeÃ¢â¬ (Pozgar, 2014). As terminally ill patients come to terms with an end-of-life diagnosis, one of their main concerns is dying with dignity and not left to suffer a long and drawn out death. Euthanasia, also known as mercy killing, is a sensitive and very controversial subject. Several people believe, doctors should not participate in any action that ends a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life due to the Hippocratic Oath stating that doctors are obligated to save lives. Although, euthanasia is considered to be immoral and even murder, it should be legalized when a personÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life, due to an incurable illness, is gradually going to deteriorate. The United States of America is one of the leading countries in medical advancements. Unfortunately, despite having state-of-the-art technical equipment, some of the top hospitals, and medical laboratories in the world, millions of people are diagnosed with terminal illnesses every day. Hearing that an illness cannot be cured can be devastating and leave a personÃ¢â¬â¢s future uncertain. In most cases, these diagnoses come with unimaginable pain, suffering, and despair. To become dependent on others to do simple daily tasks such as eating, bathing, or going to the restroom can lead to hopelessness, helplessness and depression. As a result, toShow MoreRelatedShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbout 55% of terminally ill patients die in atrocious pain. Euthanasia is a practice that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been legalized in many places, and is usually performed by lethal injection. In the United States euthanasia is only legalized in Oregon, Washington, Montana, and cert ain areas of Texas. Some citizens feel that euthanasia should be legalized because they should have the sole right to their life. Others feel that God is the one that has the authority over a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There have been many cases whereRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?864 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescontroversy over euthanasia. Because there is a sharp conflict on the issue, some countries accept mercy killing lawful while others do not. The main arguments about the issue are whether the deliberate intervention on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life to the end is morally right or wrong. Some say euthanasia should be legalized because it is the only way to relieve harsh pain and meet Ã¢â¬Ëreal happinessÃ¢â¬â¢ for the patients who are not expected to maintain their lives more. They also argue that people should respect the patientsÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?971 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Legalization of euthanasia in China Youyou Zhuang English Language Center, University of Victoria Youyou Zhuang, a student in English language center of University of Victoria. email@example.com Legalization of euthanasia in China The hospital is a place where to cure the sickness and to save the patients. Have you ever thought a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"killingÃ¢â¬ could happen in the hospital? It is the Ã¢â¬Å"mercy killingÃ¢â¬ , also called euthanasia. Till now, euthanasia is legal in Netherlands, BelgiumRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstatement: euthanasia should be legalized. There exist numerous topics that are controversial within the criminal justice system. Euthanasia, the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relive pain and suffering, is one that has been around for a long time. Many people believe that it should continue being illegal due to certain moral values. However, some people argue that euthanasia should be decriminalized because people should have the right to die when they want to. Euthanasia hasRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?907 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesactive euthanasia, which is a highly contentious issue in the United States. Voluntary active euthanasia is currently illegal in the United States. However, I believe that patients with terminal illnesses experiencing a lot of pain and misery should have the right to die the way they choose, with dignity, instead of being subjected to agony. People should be able to choose voluntary active euthanasia, if ever need be, which is why I believe that despite current policy, voluntary active euthanasia shouldRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesend quickly, but knew it was not going to happen. If euthanasia and/or assisted suicide was legalized, perhaps his wish could have been true. Unfortunately, euthanasia is only legal in the states of Oregon and Washington at the current time. Euthanasia is considered immoral and wrong for contradicting a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s job. However, it save s families the horrible sight of their loved ones dying, safeguards being up to protect any abuse towards euthanasia, and ultimate choice of being euthanized is upon theRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe natural body is able to heal itself and grow. Not only is it human nature to survive and prosper, it is also instinct to be frightened of death and suffering. Euthanasia has been a topic of debate ever since the Roman and Greek physicians have started to poison terminally ill patients with their consent. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of euthanasia is Ã¢â¬Å"the act or practice of killing or permitting the death of hopelessly sick or injured individuals (as persons or domestic animals) in a relatively painless wayRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1220 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesincurable patients, it is rarely known that Euthanasia, a termination of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life with his/her self-willingness, is a release of permanent pain. On the other hand, it is committed by the doctors. Among Voluntary, non-voluntary and involuntary Euthanasia, only is Voluntary Euthanasia being universally concerned by human beings. Various fascinating facts, Australia has already approved this act and many people from other countries have also committed Euthanasia. Regarding this topic, people have beenRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1490 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesjust like you are in pain. What would you do? Euthanasia is and act where a person assist the death of other person and relieves him/her from pain. It is also called as mercy killing. It is controversial because, some may thing it is immoral and some may think it is against their religious values. But, the fact is, the person who suffers with pain knows the pain better than anybody. It is the personÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to make. Euthanasia should be legalized with the involvements of legal documents basedRead MoreShould Euthanasia Be Legalized?1970 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagespaper IÃ¢â¬â¢m goi ng to prove to you why I think Euthanasia should be legalized. Euthanasia refers to taking a deliberate action with the express intention of ending a life to relieve suffering. Some interpret Euthanasia as the practice of ending a life in a painless manner. There are two forms of Euthanasia. Passive Euthanasia is when a patient gets an injection to put them to sleep and they never wake up. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a very fast and painless death. Active Euthanasia is when a patient does not get the medicine
Friday, December 27, 2019
Editing is a stage of the writing process in which a writer or editor strives to improve a draft by correcting errors and making words and sentences clearer, more precise, and as effective as possible. The process of editing involves adding, deleting, and rearranging words to cut the clutter and streamline overall structure. The Importance of Editing Whether youre working toward completing an assignment or hoping to get something published, tightening your writing and fixing mistakes can actually be a remarkably creative activity. Thoughtful revision of a work can lead to clarification of ideas, a reimagining of images, and sometimes, even a radical rethinking of the way youve approached your topic. The Two Types of Editing There are two types of editing: the ongoing edit and the draft edit. Most of us edit as we write and write as we edit, and its impossible to slice cleanly between the two. Youre writing, you change a word in a sentence, write three sentences more, then back up a clause to change that semicolon to a dash; or you edit a sentence and a new idea suddenly spins out from a word change, so you write a new paragraph where until that moment nothing else was needed. That is the ongoing edit... For the draft edit, you stop writing, gather a number of pages together, read them, make notes on what works and doesnt, then rewrite. It is only in the draft edit that you gain a sense of the whole and view your work as a detached professional. It is the draft edit that makes us uneasy, and that arguably matters most.Ã¢â¬âFrom The Artful Edit: The Practice of Editing Yourself by Susan Bell Editing Checkpoints The final step for the writer is to go back and clean up the rough edges... Here are some checkpoints: Facts: Make sure that what youve written is what happened; Spelling: Check and recheck names, titles, words with unusual spellings, your most frequently misspelled words, and everything else. Use a spell check but keep training your eye; Numbers: Recheck the digits, especially phone numbers. Check other numbers, make sure all math is correct, give thought to whether numbers (crowd estimates, salaries, etc.) seem logical; Grammar: Subjects and verbs must agree, pronouns need correct antecedents, modifiers must not dangle (make your English teacher proud); Style: When it comes to repairing your story, leave the copy desk feeling like the washing machine repair guy who has nothing to do.Ã¢â¬âFrom The Effective Editor by F. Davis Editing in Class A large portion of everyday editing instruction can take place in the first few minutes of class... Starting every class period with invitations to notice, combine, imitate, or celebrate is an easy way to make sure editing and writing are done every day. I want to communicate with my instruction that editing is shaping and creating writing as much as it is something that refines and polishes it... I want to step away from all the energy spent on separating editing from the writing process, shoved off at the end of it all or forgotten about altogether.Ã¢â¬âFrom Everyday Editing by Jeff Anderson Tinkering: The Essence of Writing Well Rewriting is the essence of writing well: its where the game is won or lost... Most writers dont initially say what they want to say, or say it as well as they could. The newly hatched sentence almost always has something wrong with it. Its not clear. Its not logical. Its verbose. Its klunky. Its pretentious. Its boring. Its full of clutter. Its full of cliches. It lacks rhythm. It can be read in several different ways. It doesnt lead out of the previous sentence. It doesnt... The point is that clear writing is the result of a lot of tinkering.Ã¢â¬âFrom On Writing Well by William Zinsser The Lighter Side of Editing I hate cross-outs. If Im writing and I accidentally begin a word with the wrong letter, I actually use a word that does begin with that letter so I dont have to cross out. Hence the famous closing, Dye-dye for now. A lot of my letters make no sense, but they are often very neat.Ã¢â¬âFrom Theres Nothing in This Book That I Meant to Say by Paula Poundstone Sources Bell, Susan. The Artful Edit: On the Practice of Editing Yourself. W.W. Norton, 2007Davis, F. The Effective Editor. Poynter, 2000Anderson, Jeff. Everyday Editing. Stenhouse, 2007Zinsser, William. On Writing Well. Harper, 2006Poundstone, Paula. Theres Nothing in This Book That I Meant to Say. Three Rivers Press, 2006
Thursday, December 19, 2019
To understand the state of charter schools today, it is important to know how a charter school was envisioned to be. Tell explains that charter schools, by nature, should be more accurately described as Ã¢â¬Å"contractÃ¢â¬ schools. These schools are contractually obligated to serve the interest of the general public by providing education opportunities using the funds provided from taxes. Traditionally, charter schools are defined as Ã¢â¬Å"tuition-free, publicly funded, performance-based, non-sectarian, public schools of choice open to all.Ã¢â¬  These schools are considered autonomous because they are exempt from most, if not all, local and state rules and regulations regarding education. The reduction of applicable laws pertaining to these schools are supposed to liberate them from the supposedly strict regulations that bog down the education system that prevent teachers from what they were actually hired to do: to teach. Although novel in concept, this idea has been diffic ult to implement in reality. To better understand the state of charter schools today, it is important to understand its history. The first charter school law of the United States began in Minnesota in 1991 and has since then spread throughout the United States to 43 states, and Washington D.C. and Puerto Rico. These schools today compromise of approximately 6% of public schools, and enroll 2.5 million students annually. Charter schools open annually throughout these states, but more interestingly, many close asShow MoreRelatedCharter Schools Of The United States2175 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Charter schools in the United States were created as a response to the perceived lack of educational achievement among American students. A community of critics consisting of educators, parents, politicians and entrepreneurs came together under the unified belief that current education policy was too restrictive and prohibited educational innovation. As a result, the education reform movement wa s born. According to the National Conference of State Legislators, Ã¢â¬Å"Charter schools are publicly fundedRead MoreThe s Multi State Network Of Free Public Charter High Schools950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRAPSA, and SIATech California. SIATech, Inc. s multi-state network of free public charter high schools is the foundation of our educational ecosystem, which employs 250 staff and serves 2,500 students at 22 sites. Our schools in California, Arkansas, and Florida re-enroll students from low socio-economic backgrounds who are highly at-risk of dropping out and those who have already given up and guide them to graduation. Our innovative schools provide students a renewed opportunity to earn a diplomaRead MoreEssay on Charter Schools987 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdebate on school reform in the United States. The charter school model was an idea for educational reconstruction. These charter schools insured the continuing improvement of schooling (Budde, 1989). In 1991, Minnesota was the first state to pass legislation to create a charter school. In 1992, Minnesota opened the doors of the first charter school in the United States (Ã¢â¬Å"Resources,Ã¢â¬ 2012). Since then, Charter schools have gained wide spread acceptance across the United States. Charter schools are independentRead More A Unique Approach: Education in Public and Charter Schools Essay960 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEducation in Public and Charter Schools School choice: two words that together spell out a multitude of educational options for students today. Among them are charter schools and public schools; public schools standing the test of time and charter schools being at the forefront of a revolution in educational change. Surprisingly, these two educational institutions have more in common than one might think, but maintain their differences. Key differences between charter and public schools include approachRead MoreImpact of Education Choice on Public Funds1294 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTopeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students unconstitutional. Though the U.S. Supreme Court declared school desegregation in the 1954 ruling on the famous Ã¢â¬Å"Brown v. Board of Education case, the state of Mississippi did not allow racially or ethnically different students to mix together in schools until 1970, sixteen years after the 1954 Supreme Court ruling, accordingRead MoreCharter Schools Essay1610 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCharter Schools: The Future of Education? For decades the American education system provided parents with three choices: public, homeschool or private school. If they chose public then their child(ren) would be assigned to a school past on where they lived. However , Ã¢â¬Å"in the early 1990s a handful of states created independent public charter schools, providing opportunities for teachers and others to develop innovative schooling options Ã¢â¬Å" (Palmer, Louann 2007). Not only did the creation ofRead MoreWhy Charter Schools Are Important to Education Essay example1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Why Charter Schools Are Important to Education Charter schools are public schools, but can be a better option than traditional public schools for some students. By definition, a charter school is a publicly funded and privately run school under the charter of an educational authority. (2-4) A charter school is held to a different set of standards than most traditional public schools. This can often work towards their advantage because it allows them to try new and unique methods of educating childrenRead More Public Education Essay1454 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPublic education in the United States is perhaps one of the most critical issues we face as a nation. Once pronouncing the United States as a Ã¢â¬Å"nation at riskÃ¢â¬ , the educational institution began to implement one reform strategy after another. In efforts to improve schooling for K-12 students, education reform has fiddled with class size, revised graduation requirements, and created standardized testing just to name a few. Unfortunately, traditional public schools ar e still failing to provide studentsRead MoreCharter Schools Have Open Admission Policies920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharter schools have been growing rapidly since the first school opened in Minnesota in 1992. Charter schools were first conceptualized by Ray Budde who happened to be a previous teacher and principal. That was in 1974 and by 1983 after the release of A Nation at Risk the concept caught on. Albert Shanker, then president of the American Federation of Teachers, talked of Charter schools in his speech in 1988 thus bringing it to a larger audience. By 1991 the concept caught fire bringing through theRead MoreTechnical Efficiency Of Charter School1734 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhen output is maximized given fixed levels of input. For a school to achieve technical efficiency, the school would have to provide students the best education possible given the fixed levels of labor and capital. A start-up charter school, with no permanent facility, would have to maximize the test score s of their students with the space being used. Also, a charter school must increaseased. If a charter e output when input is incr school moves to a larger facility or hires more teachers, the level